Knowledge have emerged: feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and feminist postmodernism (the last sometimes referred to as anti-enlightenment, or antihumanist tendencies in feminist thought. Harding, sandra (1991) whose science, whose knowledge london: open university press google scholar: harding, sandra (1993) `rethinking standpoint epistemology: what is strong objectivity ', pp 49-82 in linda alcoff and elizabeth potter (eds) feminist epistemologies. Thinking from women's lives by sandra g harding this work explores the possibility of a feminist way of knowing and of a feminist science and the practical consequences a feminist method might have for social, political and gender relations.
Feminist standpoint theory feminist standpoint theorists make three principal claims: (1) knowledge is socially situated (2) marginalized groups are socially situated in ways that make it more possible for them to be aware of things and ask questions than it is for the non-marginalized. Feminism essay examples feminism and the standpoint of lesbianism in harding's whose science whose knowledge 1,058 words. Longino feminist standpoint theory modest proposal that a social science adequate for women must proceed from a grasp of the forms of oppression women experience.
Hardings' feminist standpoint epistemology advances the claim that those who are unprivileged with respect to their social positions are likely to be privileged with respect to gaining knowledge of social reality. In chapter 7 harding continues to defend standpoint epistemology from its critics, this time including those who attack it for being excessively epistemological and those that attack it for being excessively sociological. 'whose knowledge, harding advocates that the reader see her theorizing as subscribing to the brechtian mode of theater, that is, precisely as discourse intended to incite, discomfit, and provoke (xi. In part 3, harding looks at the insights that people of color, male feminists, lesbians, and others can bring to these controversies, and concludes by outlining a feminist approach to science in which these insights are central.
Sandra harding surveys three types of feminist epistemological strategies: feminist empiricism feminist standpoint theory and feminist post-modernism 10 feminist empiricism would retain the two basic philosophical assumptions of science. Standpoint feminism is a theory that feminist social science should be practiced from the standpoint of women or particular groups of women, as some scholars (eg patricia hill collins and dorothy smith) say that they are better equipped to understand some aspects of the world. Some feminist scholars contend that harding's version of standpoint theory underestimates the role of language, which is influenced by society and culture and which cannot be separated from standpoint.
Sandra harding is a distinguished research professor of education emeritus at ucla her books include the science question in feminism, also from cornell, sciences from below: feminisms, postcolonialisms, and modernities, and objectivity and diversity: another logic of scientific research. Sandra g harding (born 1935) is an american philosopher of feminist and postcolonial theory, epistemology, research methodology, and philosophy of scienceshe taught for two decades at the university of delaware before moving to the university of california, los angeles in 1996. By exceptionalism i mean the belief that western sciences alone among all human knowledge systems are capable of grasping reality in its own terms—cutting nature at its joints, as philosophers of science typically enjoy referring to the matter. Harding's is a richly informed, radical voice that boldly confronts issues of crucial importance to the future of many academic disciplines her book will amply reward readers looking to achieve a more fruitful understanding of the relations between feminism, science, and social life. Sandra harding is an american philosopher of science whose research interests include feminist and postcolonial theories, epistemology, and science studies she received her phd from new york university in 1973 and is a professor in the graduate school of education and information studies at ucla.
Feminist theory feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical discourse, it aims to understand the nature of gender inequality it examines women's social roles and lived experience, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, psychoanalysis, economics, literary criticism, education, and philosophy. A feminist critique of the mainstream themes in the philosophy of science argues for a 'stand-point' approach, which entails the explicit incorporation of value-judgements into science and giving greater weight to the 'subjects' of study in social science. Whose science, whose knowledge represents a transition from gender to power considerations in harding's continuous efforts to raise questions about the theory and practice of science―shulamit reinharz, gender & society. Informed by the experience of doing research with women in prison, i propose that by problematizing the differing conceptions of `standpoint,' specifically, the `women's standpoint' and the `feminist standpoint,' we can better address the issues raised by postmodernists.
Sandra harding here develops further the themes first addressed in her widely influential book, the science question in feminism, and conducts a compelling analysis of feminist theories on the philosophical problem of how we know what we know.